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Policy Insights

The U.S. Economy: No Longer Exceptional

Arif Husain, Head of International Fixed Income
Andrew Keirle, Portfolio Manager
Kenneth A. Orchard, Portfolio Manager/Analyst
Quentin S. Fitzsimmons, Portfolio Manager
Ju Yen Tan, Senior Portfolio Manager in the Fixed Income Division
Saurabh Sud, Portfolio Manager, Global Fixed Income

Executive Summary

  • A slowdown in U.S. growth has implications for global fixed income markets.
  • Potential for U.S. dollar to depreciate.
  • Local debt of emerging market countries could become more attractive. 

Following a spectacular year in which the U.S. economy outpaced most other developed market countries, 2019 looks set to be dominated by a deceleration that drives growth in the world’s largest economy down toward its long‑term average potential. During our latest policy meetings, the investment team discussed how the end of U.S. economic exceptionalism could affect markets.

As the effect of fiscal stimulus diminishes and uncertainty over trade tariffs continues, U.S. growth is expected to slow in 2019. “The growth gap between the U.S. and other developed markets should narrow in 2019, with significant implications for global markets,” said Arif Husain, portfolio manager and head of International Fixed Income.

One consequence of softer U.S. growth is likely to be a slowing in the pace of Federal Reserve monetary policy tightening. This is already anticipated by the markets, which are pricing only one hike in 2019 compared with the two hikes signaled by the most recent Fed dot plots, published in December. “The Fed has so far been the furthest ahead amongst its developed market peers in terms of normalizing monetary policy,” noted Mr. Husain.

Turning its attention to other markets, the investment team pointed out there is potential for large impacts in the currency sphere from an end to U.S. exceptionalism. “One of the casualties of slower U.S. growth could be the U.S. dollar,” said Mr. Husain, pointing out that in 2018 the U.S. dollar performed the unusual role of acting as both a safe‑haven currency at times of market stress and as a proxy risky currency during periods of low volatility, thanks to its attractive carry profile. This dual role resulted in appreciation against almost all major and emerging market currencies. “A lot of good news seems to be priced into the U.S. dollar and that leaves it vulnerable in my view,” concluded Mr. Husain.

In developed market currencies, valuations are now more conducive to adopting long positions against the U.S. dollar—however, this might not necessarily be enough to persuade investors to act accordingly. “While the euro is technically a prime candidate for appreciation, the recent slowdown in Germany and political uncertainty in Italy and France are warning signs for some international investors,” said Mr. Husain. “Only a steady improvement in European economic conditions is likely to lead to significant euro appreciation.”

Opening Quote The growth gap between the U.S. and other developed markets should narrow in 2019, with significant implications for global markets. Closing Quote
Arif Husain, Portfolio Manager and Head of International Fixed Income

The investment team pointed out that emerging market currencies could turn out to be the real winners in 2019, supported by a softer monetary policy stance from the Federal Reserve. In particular, the currencies of countries with large external imbalances and/or high funding costs should benefit, such as the South African rand, the Turkish lira, and the Indonesian rupiah. A less hawkish Fed could also be supportive for some Eastern European currencies, including the Polish zloty and the Czech koruna, which have attractive valuations and positive growth outlooks. “However, there is a big caveat to this scenario,” warned Mr. Husain. “The U.S. needs to grow at around its long‑term potential level. Any sign of a more severe U.S. growth slowdown could send emerging market currencies into free‑fall.”

Opening Quote One of the casualties of slower U.S. growth could be the U.S. dollar. Closing Quote
Arif Husain, Portfolio Manager and Head of International Fixed Income

Given this backdrop, the investment team noted that a potentially better way to invest in the current environment would be to own local emerging market bonds. A more accommodative Fed, together with a stabilization in the U.S. dollar, would give emerging market central banks some breathing space with their current high interest rates profiles and possibly give some the room to ease monetary policy. China in particular stands out in this regard—the Chinese economy continues to slow at a time when inflation pressures have receded, yet the central bank has so far been reluctant to cut interest rates due to the pressure on the currency from the U.S. dollar. “A more stable Chinese renminbi could drive the central bank into action. An easier monetary policy stance, combined with the introduction of China into global fixed income indices, makes investing in Chinese local bonds an attractive proposition,” added Mr. Husain.

2019 is shaping up to be another year where fundamentals and valuations are the primary drivers for global fixed income markets. In addition, investors’ appetite for risk and protection is expected to play a key role in markets. How all this plays out will be highly dependent on the path of U.S. growth.

Important Information

This material is being furnished for general informational purposes only. The material does not constitute or undertake to give advice of any nature, including fiduciary investment advice, and prospective investors are recommended to seek independent legal, financial and tax advice before making any investment decision. T. Rowe Price group of companies including T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. and/or its affiliates receive revenue from T. Rowe Price investment products and services. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. The value of an investment and any income from it can go down as well as up. Investors may get back less than the amount invested.

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Information and opinions presented have been obtained or derived from sources believed to be reliable and current; however, we cannot guarantee the sources’ accuracy or completeness. There is no guarantee that any forecasts made will come to pass. The views contained herein are as of the date written and are subject to change without notice; these views may differ from those of other T. Rowe Price group companies and/or associates. Under no circumstances should the material, in whole or in part, be copied or redistributed without consent from T. Rowe Price.

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201901‑714451

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